Top 10 Blockchain companies in the world ItsBlockchain
Funding for Blockchain Companies up 79% in 2020
Big news are coming in from Blockchain industry, how a crypto-data company like coinmarketcap in less than a decade valued and acquired for around 300 to 400 millions. Lot to happen in greatest transfer of wealth in human history. #Blockchain #Bitcoin #Crypto https://bitcoinnews.com/news/binance
@cz_binance: In Jan 2016, Chairman of Central Bank of China says Blockchain is important. Bitcoin companies in China suddenly all became blockchain companies. And thankfully (for me), price started to recover, and lead into the #altszn in 2017, as well as $BTC ATH again at $20,000 in Dec.
A section of the hearing for David Marcus, the Facebook executive who leads the company's blockchain team "Libra" #bitcoin #ethereum #cryptocurrency #trading #litecoin #money #binance #bisnisonline #freemoney #platform #wallet #myeherwallet #Finance #Libra #Facebook #clibra #visacard #mestercacd #
NFT hidden gem with HUGE partners and advisors already signed
A NFT (non-fungible token) blockchain project called VIMWorld (www.VIMWorld.com) will allow for all types of gaming including older Board games and newer AAA games to store game IP in a NFT. The NFT's are called VIMS which are linked into the ecosystem VIMWorld, and the token used is called EHrT (Eight Hours Token) currently available on Bitrue (rumor - new exchange listing is imminent, maybe Binance). Game developers and Partners can quickly utilize the NFT VIM and integrate their IP which is then stored on the blockchain and can be used across games including their already selling product called the PlayTable (www.playtable.com). The team just paid out $250 ad-hoc rewards to their S-Tier node holders, not part of the VIMPool rewards which will be released soon paying out 5% every 2 weeks of all $EHrTs spent in the gaming ecosystem. A VIM can be described as Virtually Integrated Metadata which is the core of the 8Hours (www.8hoursfoundation.org) platform meta system that is built on VeChainThor blockchain and stores metdata such as data and transaction history and functions as a memory capsule, a collectible, a digital wallet (storing $EHrTs, the token) and a tool for game play and human connection. VIMS can also be linked to a physical object in the real world. Partners Advisors to the project include:
Glen Schofield - Prolific name in AAA game industry, 3x Call of Duty, grossing $1B+
Sean Barger - Gaming industry veteran who has published over 55 titles, most notably "Tetris"
Kris Alexander - Chief Strategist at Akami, Built business from $0 to $100M+
Jateen Parekh - First employee worked on the Kindle project. Co-founded Jelli and was acquired by the largest media company, iHeartMedia.
Shen Bo - Founding partner of Fenbushi. He is with Bitcoin and DACs. He first worked with Shanghai Huaji Internet Holding as CEO
Kai Huang - Co-creator of the multi-billion dollar Guitar Hero franchise, and co-founder of RedOctane.
Ray Hatoyama - Ex-Pokemon advisor, Ex-Hello Kitty CEO and director of LINE and Mitsubishi
Michael Katz - with 25 years experience in the video game entertainment sector. Industry experience includes Mattel, Coleco, (Donkey Kong and Pacman), Atari’s video game division, President ofSEGAEntertainmentUSA.
Competitors: enjin coin is more of a market place to buy gaming items whereas 8Hours aims to store your gaming life/history on an NFT which is unique and can contain special colored tokens/companions which add to the value of it and utilized across games on any device where a partner has integrated their IP. From an AMA with CEO John Dempsey of 8Hours Foudation, this stood out for me: "we're under NDA for several major companies with big household name brands. These are companies that everyone is familiar with and we can flood their communities with our EHrTs and VIMs. We can't name any right now, but these titles are under development. We've already worked with huge board game brands like Asmodee for Catan and Ticket to Ride. Our partnership deals are being made to create revenue, which we are feeding back into the ecosystem to create more and more value. Larger IPs are being signed which aren't board games, but a greater firt for EHrTs and the VIM economy in general. We do work with smaller indie firms, too, for the creation of unique content (over a dozen developers have submitted / created games for PlayTable) Circulating Supply - 1,854,037,961 Max Supply - 10,000,000,000 Market Cap - $27,549,886
Brief Comments on Goguen: Q4 2020, Q1 2021, utility, Marlowe, DSL, Glow, Plutus, IELE, smart contracts, thanksgiving to you, sidechains and Hydra, Goguen rollout and additions to product update
What is the best cryptocurrency to invest in right now?
What is the best cryptocurrency to invest in right now?
Traders worry every day about which cryptocurrency to invest in. The crypto market, however, is still difficult to predict. There is no simple answer as to which coins will win the race in 2020. The guarantee: Bitcoin Bitcoin will always be a good investment. Satoshi Nakamoto’s invention continues to lead in terms of market capitalization and trade volume. Almost every crypto exchange can trade Bitcoin and it is the cryptocurrency that is used the most. If you can or just want to invest in a single cryptocurrency, Bitcoin is always a good choice. The first true peer-to-peer currency is still the number 1 cryptocurrencies. So far, there is no indication that Bitcoin will be thrown from the throne in the foreseeable future. The next Bitcoin Halving will also take place in 2020. This means that fewer coins are distributed during mining. The available amount grows more slowly, so that every single coin becomes more valuable as soon as the demand increases. Many investors expect price increases after halving. It is not guaranteed that Bitcoin will experience the biggest growth in 2020. But it’s the most stable cryptocurrency to invest so far. Advantages: – Strongest market dominance, largest trading volume – The most widely used cryptocurrency worldwide – Secure facility Bitcoin alternatives Bitcoin clones could also be a safe investment: cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin Cash (BCH), Bitcoin Gold (BTG), Litecoin (LTC) or Bitcoin SV (BSV). These cryptocurrencies are mostly faster and more technically advanced than Bitcoin, but will not be able to break its market dominance in the foreseeable future. They have the same purpose: digital means of payment for the Internet. Your prices often move parallel to the Bitcoin price, but can also rise or fall with a time delay. Some of them have the potential to grow faster than their template, but it is not guaranteed. – Good alternative to diversification – Potential for big price gains Binance Coin (BNB) The Binance Coin (BNB) is the cryptocurrency of the largest exchange in the world: Binance. The Exchange has expanded considerably in recent years and plans to continue doing so in 2020. An investment in the Binance Coin is equivalent to an investment in the Exchange. The Binance Coin can be used to trade on the cryptocurrency exchange. If you buy cryptocurrencies with her, you get discounts on your purchases. Binance coins therefore have a benefit for every trader. Binance will soon start a decentralized exchange called Binance DEX, on which in turn the in-house cryptocurrency can be used as a means of payment. That makes the Binance Coin extremely liquid. Shortly after the start of the cryptocurrency, it was able to get a permanent place in the top 10 largest cryptocurrencies on CoinMarketCap. In 2019, the BNB price tripled. – Extremely liquid cryptocurrency – Currency on the largest exchange: Binance – Could already gain good prices Tron (TRX) Tron is a blockchain platform from Justin Sun, an important figure in the crypto scene. An independent ecosystem for the entertainment industry is to be created on the platform. Every user should be able to upload their own videos, pictures, music, texts etc. without being dependent on companies like YouTube. Basically, it’s a smart contract platform, similar to Ethereum (which is also a good investment). Users can upload data, make it available to other users and write their own smart contracts. Tron now attracts a large number of investors. There is a lot of potential in the project. In 2017, Tron’s price rose from EUR 0.0018 to EUR 0.045. In 2018 and 2019, the cryptocurrency gained more and more ground in the crypto world and is now among the top 15 in terms of market capitalization.
Ahead of Migration to Symbol, Simplex Offers Fiat On-Ramp to Buy XEM
Simplex provides fiat on-ramp infrastructure to several cryptocurrency exchanges, brokers and wallets.
https://preview.redd.it/xu0x98n0r0w51.png?width=880&format=png&auto=webp&s=bf68a66d608a1f0cd78a09eec28a58f34f1fb33b XEM, NEM’s native token on the original NEM blockchain (NIS1), can now be purchased using credit and debit cards thanks to a new partnership with crypto payment gateway, Simplex. Simplex provides fiat on-ramp infrastructure for several cryptocurrency exchanges, brokers, and wallets. The agreement will allow XEM holders to conduct and settle crypto transactions, a grey area of business where a gauntlet of KYC requirements and other regulations kick in. NEM’s userbase will benefit from Simplex’s fiat credit and debit purchase options and the support will prepare XEM holders for the upcoming launch of Symbol from NEM, its new enterprise-grade blockchain solution. “This partnership will provide an easy global on-ramp to XEM, enabling access to Simplex’s extensive network of exchanges globally. By providing users with greater flexibility in purchasing, Simplex will broaden the reach of XEM,” the company said. Simplex often charges 3.5 percent of a transaction, with a $10 minimum purchase amount. Moreover, the company applies various restrictions, including a $20,000 maximum for daily transactions when using a credit or debit card, as well as a $50,000 maximum monthly limit. Israeli-based Simplex combines crypto payment processing with fraud prevention technology and also provides a KYC opt-out feature for purchases less than USD $150. This amount is calculated for the entire lifetime of the user. Further, the startup enables merchants to accept diverse payment methods, including credit card deposits and purchases, with zero exposure to chargeback risk. Simplex has already signed partnerships with leading crypto exchanges, including Binance and Huobi, among others, to enable users to buy cryptocurrencies with their credit cards. Most recently, it has added support for Bitcoin SV, the cryptocurrency spearheaded by the self-proclaimed creator of Bitcoin, Craig Wright. Speaking on today’s announcement, Nicholas Pelecanos, head of trading at NEM said: “We’re excited to make XEM more globally accessible through Simplex’s vast network of partners and exchanges. Simplex’s user experience is unparalleled, and we’re thrilled to work with this industry behemoth to extend NEM’s global reach. This will enable anyone, anywhere, to have a foray into NEM and the digital assets space, democratizing access and propelling the industry forward to the next phase of adoption.” Source
Summary: Everyone knows that when you give your assets to someone else, they always keep them safe. If this is true for individuals, it is certainly true for businesses. Custodians always tell the truth and manage funds properly. They won't have any interest in taking the assets as an exchange operator would. Auditors tell the truth and can't be misled. That's because organizations that are regulated are incapable of lying and don't make mistakes. First, some background. Here is a summary of how custodians make us more secure: Previously, we might give Alice our crypto assets to hold. There were risks:
Alice might take the assets and disappear.
Alice might spend the assets and pretend that she still has them (fractional model).
Alice might store the assets insecurely and they'll get stolen.
Alice might give the assets to someone else by mistake or by force.
Alice might lose access to the assets.
But "no worries", Alice has a custodian named Bob. Bob is dressed in a nice suit. He knows some politicians. And he drives a Porsche. "So you have nothing to worry about!". And look at all the benefits we get:
Alice can't take the assets and disappear (unless she asks Bob or never gives them to Bob).
Alice can't spend the assets and pretend that she still has them. (Unless she didn't give them to Bob or asks him for them.)
Alice can't store the assets insecurely so they get stolen. (After all - she doesn't have any control over the withdrawal process from any of Bob's systems, right?)
Alice can't give the assets to someone else by mistake or by force. (Bob will stop her, right Bob?)
Alice can't lose access to the funds. (She'll always be present, sane, and remember all secrets, right?)
See - all problems are solved! All we have to worry about now is:
Bob might take the assets and disappear.
Bob might spend the assets and pretend that he still has them (fractional model).
Bob might store the assets insecurely and they'll get stolen.
Bob might give the assets to someone else by mistake or by force.
Bob might lose access to the assets.
It's pretty simple. Before we had to trust Alice. Now we only have to trust Alice, Bob, and all the ways in which they communicate. Just think of how much more secure we are! "On top of that", Bob assures us, "we're using a special wallet structure". Bob shows Alice a diagram. "We've broken the balance up and store it in lots of smaller wallets. That way", he assures her, "a thief can't take it all at once". And he points to a historic case where a large sum was taken "because it was stored in a single wallet... how stupid". "Very early on, we used to have all the crypto in one wallet", he said, "and then one Christmas a hacker came and took it all. We call him the Grinch. Now we individually wrap each crypto and stick it under a binary search tree. The Grinch has never been back since." "As well", Bob continues, "even if someone were to get in, we've got insurance. It covers all thefts and even coercion, collusion, and misplaced keys - only subject to the policy terms and conditions." And with that, he pulls out a phone-book sized contract and slams it on the desk with a thud. "Yep", he continues, "we're paying top dollar for one of the best policies in the country!" "Can I read it?' Alice asks. "Sure," Bob says, "just as soon as our legal team is done with it. They're almost through the first chapter." He pauses, then continues. "And can you believe that sales guy Mike? He has the same year Porsche as me. I mean, what are the odds?" "Do you use multi-sig?", Alice asks. "Absolutely!" Bob replies. "All our engineers are fully trained in multi-sig. Whenever we want to set up a new wallet, we generate 2 separate keys in an air-gapped process and store them in this proprietary system here. Look, it even requires the biometric signature from one of our team members to initiate any withdrawal." He demonstrates by pressing his thumb into the display. "We use a third-party cloud validation API to match the thumbprint and authorize each withdrawal. The keys are also backed up daily to an off-site third-party." "Wow that's really impressive," Alice says, "but what if we need access for a withdrawal outside of office hours?" "Well that's no issue", Bob says, "just send us an email, call, or text message and we always have someone on staff to help out. Just another part of our strong commitment to all our customers!" "What about Proof of Reserve?", Alice asks. "Of course", Bob replies, "though rather than publish any blockchain addresses or signed transaction, for privacy we just do a SHA256 refactoring of the inverse hash modulus for each UTXO nonce and combine the smart contract coefficient consensus in our hyperledger lightning node. But it's really simple to use." He pushes a button and a large green checkmark appears on a screen. "See - the algorithm ran through and reserves are proven." "Wow", Alice says, "you really know your stuff! And that is easy to use! What about fiat balances?" "Yeah, we have an auditor too", Bob replies, "Been using him for a long time so we have quite a strong relationship going! We have special books we give him every year and he's very efficient! Checks the fiat, crypto, and everything all at once!" "We used to have a nice offline multi-sig setup we've been using without issue for the past 5 years, but I think we'll move all our funds over to your facility," Alice says. "Awesome", Bob replies, "Thanks so much! This is perfect timing too - my Porsche got a dent on it this morning. We have the paperwork right over here." "Great!", Alice replies. And with that, Alice gets out her pen and Bob gets the contract. "Don't worry", he says, "you can take your crypto-assets back anytime you like - just subject to our cancellation policy. Our annual management fees are also super low and we don't adjust them often". How many holes have to exist for your funds to get stolen? Just one. Why are we taking a powerful offline multi-sig setup, widely used globally in hundreds of different/lacking regulatory environments with 0 breaches to date, and circumventing it by a demonstrably weak third party layer? And paying a great expense to do so? If you go through the list of breaches in the past 2 years to highly credible organizations, you go through the list of major corporate frauds (only the ones we know about), you go through the list of all the times platforms have lost funds, you go through the list of times and ways that people have lost their crypto from identity theft, hot wallet exploits, extortion, etc... and then you go through this custodian with a fine-tooth comb and truly believe they have value to add far beyond what you could, sticking your funds in a wallet (or set of wallets) they control exclusively is the absolute worst possible way to take advantage of that security. The best way to add security for crypto-assets is to make a stronger multi-sig. With one custodian, what you are doing is giving them your cryptocurrency and hoping they're honest, competent, and flawlessly secure. It's no different than storing it on a really secure exchange. Maybe the insurance will cover you. Didn't work for Bitpay in 2015. Didn't work for Yapizon in 2017. Insurance has never paid a claim in the entire history of cryptocurrency. But maybe you'll get lucky. Maybe your exact scenario will buck the trend and be what they're willing to cover. After the large deductible and hopefully without a long and expensive court battle. And you want to advertise this increase in risk, the lapse of judgement, an accident waiting to happen, as though it's some kind of benefit to customers ("Free institutional-grade storage for your digital assets.")? And then some people are writing to the OSC that custodians should be mandatory for all funds on every exchange platform? That this somehow will make Canadians as a whole more secure or better protected compared with standard air-gapped multi-sig? On what planet? Most of the problems in Canada stemmed from one thing - a lack of transparency. If Canadians had known what a joke Quadriga was - it wouldn't have grown to lose $400m from hard-working Canadians from coast to coast to coast. And Gerald Cotten would be in jail, not wherever he is now (at best, rotting peacefully). EZ-BTC and mister Dave Smilie would have been a tiny little scam to his friends, not a multi-million dollar fraud. Einstein would have got their act together or been shut down BEFORE losing millions and millions more in people's funds generously donated to criminals. MapleChange wouldn't have even been a thing. And maybe we'd know a little more about CoinTradeNewNote - like how much was lost in there. Almost all of the major losses with cryptocurrency exchanges involve deception with unbacked funds. So it's great to see transparency reports from BitBuy and ShakePay where someone independently verified the backing. The only thing we don't have is:
ANY CERTAINTY BALANCES WEREN'T EXCLUDED. Quadriga's largest account was $70m. 80% of funds are in 20% of accounts (Pareto principle). All it takes is excluding a few really large accounts - and nobody's the wiser. A fractional platform can easily pass any audit this way.
ANY VISIBILITY WHATSOEVER INTO THE CUSTODIANS. BitBuy put out their report before moving all the funds to their custodian and ShakePay apparently can't even tell us who the custodian is. That's pretty important considering that basically all of the funds are now stored there.
ANY IDEA ABOUT THE OTHER EXCHANGES. In order for this to be effective, it has to be the norm. It needs to be "unusual" not to know. If obscurity is the norm, then it's super easy for people like Gerald Cotten and Dave Smilie to blend right in.
It's not complicated to validate cryptocurrency assets. They need to exist, they need to be spendable, and they need to cover the total balances. There are plenty of credible people and firms across the country that have the capacity to reasonably perform this validation. Having more frequent checks by different, independent, parties who publish transparent reports is far more valuable than an annual check by a single "more credible/official" party who does the exact same basic checks and may or may not publish anything. Here's an example set of requirements that could be mandated:
First report within 1 month of launching, another within 3 months, and further reports at minimum every 6 months thereafter.
No auditor can be repeated within a 12 month period.
All reports must be public, identifying the auditor and the full methodology used.
All auditors must be independent of the firm being audited with no conflict of interest.
Reports must include the percentage of each asset backed, and how it's backed.
The auditor publishes a hash list, which lists a hash of each customer's information and balances that were included. Hash is one-way encryption so privacy is fully preserved. Every customer can use this to have 100% confidence they were included.
If we want more extensive requirements on audits, these should scale upward based on the total assets at risk on the platform, and whether the platform has loaned their assets out.
There are ways to structure audits such that neither crypto assets nor customer information are ever put at risk, and both can still be properly validated and publicly verifiable. There are also ways to structure audits such that they are completely reasonable for small platforms and don't inhibit innovation in any way. By making the process as reasonable as possible, we can completely eliminate any reason/excuse that an honest platform would have for not being audited. That is arguable far more important than any incremental improvement we might get from mandating "the best of the best" accountants. Right now we have nothing mandated and tons of Canadians using offshore exchanges with no oversight whatsoever. Transparency does not prove crypto assets are safe. CoinTradeNewNote, Flexcoin ($600k), and Canadian Bitcoins ($100k) are examples where crypto-assets were breached from platforms in Canada. All of them were online wallets and used no multi-sig as far as any records show. This is consistent with what we see globally - air-gapped multi-sig wallets have an impeccable record, while other schemes tend to suffer breach after breach. We don't actually know how much CoinTrader lost because there was no visibility. Rather than publishing details of what happened, the co-founder of CoinTrader silently moved on to found another platform - the "most trusted way to buy and sell crypto" - a site that has no information whatsoever (that I could find) on the storage practices and a FAQ advising that “[t]rading cryptocurrency is completely safe” and that having your own wallet is “entirely up to you! You can certainly keep cryptocurrency, or fiat, or both, on the app.” Doesn't sound like much was learned here, which is really sad to see. It's not that complicated or unreasonable to set up a proper hardware wallet. Multi-sig can be learned in a single course. Something the equivalent complexity of a driver's license test could prevent all the cold storage exploits we've seen to date - even globally. Platform operators have a key advantage in detecting and preventing fraud - they know their customers far better than any custodian ever would. The best job that custodians can do is to find high integrity individuals and train them to form even better wallet signatories. Rather than mandating that all platforms expose themselves to arbitrary third party risks, regulations should center around ensuring that all signatories are background-checked, properly trained, and using proper procedures. We also need to make sure that signatories are empowered with rights and responsibilities to reject and report fraud. They need to know that they can safely challenge and delay a transaction - even if it turns out they made a mistake. We need to have an environment where mistakes are brought to the surface and dealt with. Not one where firms and people feel the need to hide what happened. In addition to a knowledge-based test, an auditor can privately interview each signatory to make sure they're not in coercive situations, and we should make sure they can freely and anonymously report any issues without threat of retaliation. A proper multi-sig has each signature held by a separate person and is governed by policies and mutual decisions instead of a hierarchy. It includes at least one redundant signature. For best results, 3of4, 3of5, 3of6, 4of5, 4of6, 4of7, 5of6, or 5of7. History has demonstrated over and over again the risk of hot wallets even to highly credible organizations. Nonetheless, many platforms have hot wallets for convenience. While such losses are generally compensated by platforms without issue (for example Poloniex, Bitstamp, Bitfinex, Gatecoin, Coincheck, Bithumb, Zaif, CoinBene, Binance, Bitrue, Bitpoint, Upbit, VinDAX, and now KuCoin), the public tends to focus more on cases that didn't end well. Regardless of what systems are employed, there is always some level of risk. For that reason, most members of the public would prefer to see third party insurance. Rather than trying to convince third party profit-seekers to provide comprehensive insurance and then relying on an expensive and slow legal system to enforce against whatever legal loopholes they manage to find each and every time something goes wrong, insurance could be run through multiple exchange operators and regulators, with the shared interest of having a reputable industry, keeping costs down, and taking care of Canadians. For example, a 4 of 7 multi-sig insurance fund held between 5 independent exchange operators and 2 regulatory bodies. All Canadian exchanges could pay premiums at a set rate based on their needed coverage, with a higher price paid for hot wallet coverage (anything not an air-gapped multi-sig cold wallet). Such a model would be much cheaper to manage, offer better coverage, and be much more reliable to payout when needed. The kind of coverage you could have under this model is unheard of. You could even create something like the CDIC to protect Canadians who get their trading accounts hacked if they can sufficiently prove the loss is legitimate. In cases of fraud, gross negligence, or insolvency, the fund can be used to pay affected users directly (utilizing the last transparent balance report in the worst case), something which private insurance would never touch. While it's recommended to have official policies for coverage, a model where members vote would fully cover edge cases. (Could be similar to the Supreme Court where justices vote based on case law.) Such a model could fully protect all Canadians across all platforms. You can have a fiat coverage governed by legal agreements, and crypto-asset coverage governed by both multi-sig and legal agreements. It could be practical, affordable, and inclusive. Now, we are at a crossroads. We can happily give up our freedom, our innovation, and our money. We can pay hefty expenses to auditors, lawyers, and regulators year after year (and make no mistake - this cost will grow to many millions or even billions as the industry grows - and it will be borne by all Canadians on every platform because platforms are not going to eat up these costs at a loss). We can make it nearly impossible for any new platform to enter the marketplace, forcing Canadians to use the same stagnant platforms year after year. We can centralize and consolidate the entire industry into 2 or 3 big players and have everyone else fail (possibly to heavy losses of users of those platforms). And when a flawed security model doesn't work and gets breached, we can make it even more complicated with even more people in suits making big money doing the job that blockchain was supposed to do in the first place. We can build a system which is so intertwined and dependent on big government, traditional finance, and central bankers that it's future depends entirely on that of the fiat system, of fractional banking, and of government bail-outs. If we choose this path, as history has shown us over and over again, we can not go back, save for revolution. Our children and grandchildren will still be paying the consequences of what we decided today. Or, we can find solutions that work. We can maintain an open and innovative environment while making the adjustments we need to make to fully protect Canadian investors and cryptocurrency users, giving easy and affordable access to cryptocurrency for all Canadians on the platform of their choice, and creating an environment in which entrepreneurs and problem solvers can bring those solutions forward easily. None of the above precludes innovation in any way, or adds any unreasonable cost - and these three policies would demonstrably eliminate or resolve all 109 historic cases as studied here - that's every single case researched so far going back to 2011. It includes every loss that was studied so far not just in Canada but globally as well. Unfortunately, finding answers is the least challenging part. Far more challenging is to get platform operators and regulators to agree on anything. My last post got no response whatsoever, and while the OSC has told me they're happy for industry feedback, I believe my opinion alone is fairly meaningless. This takes the whole community working together to solve. So please let me know your thoughts. Please take the time to upvote and share this with people. Please - let's get this solved and not leave it up to other people to do. Facts/background/sources (skip if you like):
The inspiration for the paragraph about splitting wallets was an actual quote from a Canadian company providing custodial services in response to the OSC consultation paper: "We believe that it will be in the in best interests of investors to prohibit pooled crypto assets or ‘floats’. Most Platforms pool assets, citing reasons of practicality and expense. The recent hack of the world’s largest Platform – Binance – demonstrates the vulnerability of participants’ assets when such concessions are made. In this instance, the Platform’s entire hot wallet of Bitcoins, worth over $40 million, was stolen, facilitated in part by the pooling of client crypto assets." "the maintenance of participants (and Platform) crypto assets across multiple wallets distributes the related risk and responsibility of security - reducing the amount of insurance coverage required and making insurance coverage more readily obtainable". For the record, their reply also said nothing whatsoever about multi-sig or offline storage.
In addition to the fact that the $40m hack represented only one "hot wallet" of Binance, and they actually had the vast majority of assets in other wallets (including mostly cold wallets), multiple real cases have clearly demonstrated that risk is still present with multiple wallets. Bitfinex, VinDAX, Bithumb, Altsbit, BitPoint, Cryptopia, and just recently KuCoin all had multiple wallets breached all at the same time, and may represent a significantly larger impact on customers than the Binance breach which was fully covered by Binance. To represent that simply having multiple separate wallets under the same security scheme is a comprehensive way to reduce risk is just not true.
Private insurance has historically never covered a single loss in the cryptocurrency space (at least, not one that I was able to find), and there are notable cases where massive losses were not covered by insurance. Bitpay in 2015 and Yapizon in 2017 both had insurance policies that didn't pay out during the breach, even after a lengthly court process. The same insurance that ShakePay is presently using (and announced to much fanfare) was describe by their CEO himself as covering “physical theft of the media where the private keys are held,” which is something that has never historically happened. As was said with regard to the same policy in 2018 - “I don’t find it surprising that Lloyd’s is in this space,” said Johnson, adding that to his mind the challenge for everybody is figuring out how to structure these policies so that they are actually protective. “You can create an insurance policy that protects no one – you know there are so many caveats to the policy that it’s not super protective.”
The most profitable policy for a private insurance company is one with the most expensive premiums that they never have to pay a claim on. They have no inherent incentive to take care of people who lost funds. It's "cheaper" to take the reputational hit and fight the claim in court. The more money at stake, the more the insurance provider is incentivized to avoid payout. They're not going to insure the assets unless they have reasonable certainty to make a profit by doing so, and they're not going to pay out a massive sum unless it's legally forced. Private insurance is always structured to be maximally profitable to the insurance provider.
The circumvention of multi-sig was a key factor in the massive Bitfinex hack of over $60m of bitcoin, which today still sits being slowly used and is worth over $3b. While Bitfinex used a qualified custodian Bitgo, which was and still is active and one of the industry leaders of custodians, and they set up 2 of 3 multi-sig wallets, the entire system was routed through Bitfinex, such that Bitfinex customers could initiate the withdrawals in a "hot" fashion. This feature was also a hit with the hacker. The multi-sig was fully circumvented.
Bitpay in 2015 was another example of a breach that stole 5,000 bitcoins. This happened not through the exploit of any system in Bitpay, but because the CEO of a company they worked with got their computer hacked and the hackers were able to request multiple bitcoin purchases, which Bitpay honoured because they came from the customer's computer legitimately. Impersonation is a very common tactic used by fraudsters, and methods get more extreme all the time.
A notable case in Canada was the Canadian Bitcoins exploit. Funds were stored on a server in a Rogers Data Center, and the attendee was successfully convinced to reboot the server "in safe mode" with a simple phone call, thus bypassing the extensive security and enabling the theft.
The very nature of custodians circumvents multi-sig. This is because custodians are not just having to secure the assets against some sort of physical breach but against any form of social engineering, modification of orders, fraudulent withdrawal attempts, etc... If the security practices of signatories in a multi-sig arrangement are such that the breach risk of one signatory is 1 in 100, the requirement of 3 independent signatures makes the risk of theft 1 in 1,000,000. Since hackers tend to exploit the weakest link, a comparable custodian has to make the entry and exit points of their platform 10,000 times more secure than one of those signatories to provide equivalent protection. And if the signatories beef up their security by only 10x, the risk is now 1 in 1,000,000,000. The custodian has to be 1,000,000 times more secure. The larger and more complex a system is, the more potential vulnerabilities exist in it, and the fewer people can understand how the system works when performing upgrades. Even if a system is completely secure today, one has to also consider how that system might evolve over time or work with different members.
By contrast, offline multi-signature solutions have an extremely solid record, and in the entire history of cryptocurrency exchange incidents which I've studied (listed here), there has only been one incident (796 exchange in 2015) involving an offline multi-signature wallet. It happened because the customer's bitcoin address was modified by hackers, and the amount that was stolen ($230k) was immediately covered by the exchange operators. Basically, the platform operators were tricked into sending a legitimate withdrawal request to the wrong address because hackers exploited their platform to change that address. Such an issue would not be prevented in any way by the use of a custodian, as that custodian has no oversight whatsoever to the exchange platform. It's practical for all exchange operators to test large withdrawal transactions as a general policy, regardless of what model is used, and general best practice is to diagnose and fix such an exploit as soon as it occurs.
False promises on the backing of funds played a huge role in the downfall of Quadriga, and it's been exposed over and over again (MyCoin, PlusToken, Bitsane, Bitmarket, EZBTC, IDAX). Even today, customers have extremely limited certainty on whether their funds in exchanges are actually being backed or how they're being backed. While this issue is not unique to cryptocurrency exchanges, the complexity of the technology and the lack of any regulation or standards makes problems more widespread, and there is no "central bank" to come to the rescue as in the 2008 financial crisis or during the great depression when "9,000 banks failed".
In addition to fraudulent operations, the industry is full of cases where operators have suffered breaches and not reported them. Most recently, Einstein was the largest case in Canada, where ongoing breaches and fraud were perpetrated against the platform for multiple years and nobody found out until the platform collapsed completely. While fraud and breaches suck to deal with, they suck even more when not dealt with. Lack of visibility played a role in the largest downfalls of Mt. Gox, Cryptsy, and Bitgrail. In some cases, platforms are alleged to have suffered a hack and keep operating without admitting it at all, such as CoinBene.
It surprises some to learn that a cryptographic solution has already existed since 2013, and gained widespread support in 2014 after Mt. Gox. Proof of Reserves is a full cryptographic proof that allows any customer using an exchange to have complete certainty that their crypto-assets are fully backed by the platform in real-time. This is accomplished by proving that assets exist on the blockchain, are spendable, and fully cover customer deposits. It does not prove safety of assets or backing of fiat assets.
If we didn't care about privacy at all, a platform could publish their wallet addresses, sign a partial transaction, and put the full list of customer information and balances out publicly. Customers can each check that they are on the list, that the balances are accurate, that the total adds up, and that it's backed and spendable on the blockchain. Platforms who exclude any customer take a risk because that customer can easily check and see they were excluded. So together with all customers checking, this forms a full proof of backing of all crypto assets.
However, obviously customers care about their private information being published. Therefore, a hash of the information can be provided instead. Hash is one-way encryption. The hash allows the customer to validate inclusion (by hashing their own known information), while anyone looking at the list of hashes cannot determine the private information of any other user. All other parts of the scheme remain fully intact. A model like this is in use on the exchange CoinFloor in the UK.
A Merkle tree can provide even greater privacy. Instead of a list of balances, the balances are arranged into a binary tree. A customer starts from their node, and works their way to the top of the tree. For example, they know they have 5 BTC, they plus 1 other customer hold 7 BTC, they plus 2-3 other customers hold 17 BTC, etc... until they reach the root where all the BTC are represented. Thus, there is no way to find the balances of other individual customers aside from one unidentified customer in this case.
Proposals such as this had the backing of leaders in the community including Nic Carter, Greg Maxwell, and Zak Wilcox. Substantial and significant effort started back in 2013, with massive popularity in 2014. But what became of that effort? Very little. Exchange operators continue to refuse to give visibility. Despite the fact this information can often be obtained through trivial blockchain analysis, no Canadian platform has ever provided any wallet addresses publicly. As described by the CEO of Newton "For us to implement some kind of realtime Proof of Reserves solution, which I'm not opposed to, it would have to ... Preserve our users' privacy, as well as our own. Some kind of zero-knowledge proof". Kraken describes here in more detail why they haven't implemented such a scheme. According to professor Eli Ben-Sasson, when he spoke with exchanges, none were interested in implementing Proof of Reserves.
And yet, Kraken's places their reasoning on a page called "Proof of Reserves". More recently, both BitBuy and ShakePay have released reports titled "Proof of Reserves and Security Audit". Both reports contain disclaimers against being audits. Both reports trust the customer list provided by the platform, leaving the open possibility that multiple large accounts could have been excluded from the process. Proof of Reserves is a blockchain validation where customers see the wallets on the blockchain. The report from Kraken is 5 years old, but they leave it described as though it was just done a few weeks ago. And look at what they expect customers to do for validation. When firms represent something being "Proof of Reserve" when it's not, this is like a farmer growing fruit with pesticides and selling it in a farmers market as organic produce - except that these are people's hard-earned life savings at risk here. Platforms are misrepresenting the level of visibility in place and deceiving the public by their misuse of this term. They haven't proven anything.
Fraud isn't a problem that is unique to cryptocurrency. Fraud happens all the time. Enron, WorldCom, Nortel, Bear Stearns, Wells Fargo, Moser Baer, Wirecard, Bre-X, and Nicola are just some of the cases where frauds became large enough to become a big deal (and there are so many countless others). These all happened on 100% reversible assets despite regulations being in place. In many of these cases, the problems happened due to the over-complexity of the financial instruments. For example, Enron had "complex financial statements [which] were confusing to shareholders and analysts", creating "off-balance-sheet vehicles, complex financing structures, and deals so bewildering that few people could understand them". In cryptocurrency, we are often combining complex financial products with complex technologies and verification processes. We are naïve if we think problems like this won't happen. It is awkward and uncomfortable for many people to admit that they don't know how something works. If we want "money of the people" to work, the solutions have to be simple enough that "the people" can understand them, not so confusing that financial professionals and technology experts struggle to use or understand them.
For those who question the extent to which an organization can fool their way into a security consultancy role, HB Gary should be a great example to look at. Prior to trying to out anonymous, HB Gary was being actively hired by multiple US government agencies and others in the private sector (with glowing testimonials). The published articles and hosted professional security conferences. One should also look at this list of data breaches from the past 2 years. Many of them are large corporations, government entities, and technology companies. These are the ones we know about. Undoubtedly, there are many more that we do not know about. If HB Gary hadn't been "outted" by anonymous, would we have known they were insecure? If the same breach had happened outside of the public spotlight, would it even have been reported? Or would HB Gary have just deleted the Twitter posts, brought their site back up, done a couple patches, and kept on operating as though nothing had happened?
In the case of Quadriga, the facts are clear. Despite past experience with platforms such as MapleChange in Canada and others around the world, no guidance or even the most basic of a framework was put in place by regulators. By not clarifying any sort of legal framework, regulators enabled a situation where a platform could be run by former criminal Mike Dhanini/Omar Patryn, and where funds could be held fully unchecked by one person. At the same time, the lack of regulation deterred legitimate entities from running competing platforms and Quadriga was granted a money services business license for multiple years of operation, which gave the firm the appearance of legitimacy. Regulators did little to protect Canadians despite Quadriga failing to file taxes from 2016 onward. The entire administrative team had resigned and this was public knowledge. Many people had suspicions of what was going on, including Ryan Mueller, who forwarded complaints to the authorities. These were ignored, giving Gerald Cotten the opportunity to escape without justice.
There are multiple issues with the SOC II model including the prohibitive cost (you have to find a third party accounting firm and the prices are not even listed publicly on any sites), the requirement of operating for a year (impossible for new platforms), and lack of any public visibility (SOC II are private reports that aren't shared outside the people in suits).
Securities frameworks are expensive. Sarbanes-Oxley is estimated to cost $5.1 million USD/yr for the average Fortune 500 company in the United States. Since "Fortune 500" represents the top 500 companies, that means well over $2.55 billion USD (~$3.4 billion CAD) is going to people in suits. Isn't the problem of trust and verification the exact problem that the blockchain is supposed to solve?
To use Quadriga as justification for why custodians or SOC II or other advanced schemes are needed for platforms is rather silly, when any framework or visibility at all, or even the most basic of storage policies, would have prevented the whole thing. It's just an embarrassment.
We are now seeing regulators take strong action. CoinSquare in Canada with multi-million dollar fines. BitMex from the US, criminal charges and arrests. OkEx, with full disregard of withdrawals and no communication. Who's next?
We have a unique window today where we can solve these problems, and not permanently destroy innovation with unreasonable expectations, but we need to act quickly. This is a unique historic time that will never come again.
Ahead of Migration to Symbol, Simplex Offers Fiat On-Ramp to Buy XEM
Simplex provides fiat on-ramp infrastructure to several cryptocurrency exchanges, brokers and wallets.
https://preview.redd.it/hgd4r3xdr0w51.png?width=880&format=png&auto=webp&s=cd027802ab6ca9e1f7f0d0b2704d9b145f5ef4d0 XEM, NEM’s native token on the original NEM blockchain (NIS1), can now be purchased using credit and debit cards thanks to a new partnership with crypto payment gateway, Simplex. Simplex provides fiat on-ramp infrastructure for several cryptocurrency exchanges, brokers, and wallets. The agreement will allow XEM holders to conduct and settle crypto transactions, a grey area of business where a gauntlet of KYC requirements and other regulations kick in. NEM’s userbase will benefit from Simplex’s fiat credit and debit purchase options and the support will prepare XEM holders for the upcoming launch of Symbol from NEM, its new enterprise-grade blockchain solution. “This partnership will provide an easy global on-ramp to XEM, enabling access to Simplex’s extensive network of exchanges globally. By providing users with greater flexibility in purchasing, Simplex will broaden the reach of XEM,” the company said. Simplex often charges 3.5 percent of a transaction, with a $10 minimum purchase amount. Moreover, the company applies various restrictions, including a $20,000 maximum for daily transactions when using a credit or debit card, as well as a $50,000 maximum monthly limit. Israeli-based Simplex combines crypto payment processing with fraud prevention technology and also provides a KYC opt-out feature for purchases less than USD $150. This amount is calculated for the entire lifetime of the user. Further, the startup enables merchants to accept diverse payment methods, including credit card deposits and purchases, with zero exposure to chargeback risk. Simplex has already signed partnerships with leading crypto exchanges, including Binance and Huobi, among others, to enable users to buy cryptocurrencies with their credit cards. Most recently, it has added support for Bitcoin SV, the cryptocurrency spearheaded by the self-proclaimed creator of Bitcoin, Craig Wright. Speaking on today’s announcement, Nicholas Pelecanos, head of trading at NEM said: “We’re excited to make XEM more globally accessible through Simplex’s vast network of partners and exchanges. Simplex’s user experience is unparalleled, and we’re thrilled to work with this industry behemoth to extend NEM’s global reach. This will enable anyone, anywhere, to have a foray into NEM and the digital assets space, democratizing access and propelling the industry forward to the next phase of adoption.” Source
11-05 20:58 - 'Is Bitcoin Safe and Legal?' (self.Bitcoin) by /u/koinalio removed from /r/Bitcoin within 2-12min
''' Buying, selling, or trading bitcoin is a private transaction in every part of the world. It is a lawful activity in most western and advanced countries, including the US, Canada, and the U.K. Some large economies have restrictions on Bitcoin, including China (ownership discouraged although not a criminal violation) and India ( banks banned from engaging in Bitcoin). Governments everywhere have concerns with the anonymous movement of funds; they wish to prevent the use of money for illegal purposes. Koinal understands the importance of anti-corruption laws and maintains legal standards for all sales and purchases. The best advice is to consult the laws of the country where one lives and intends to do business with Bitcoin. Koinal operates within the bounds of all applicable laws and meets legal requirements for transactions in every state in which it does business.
Is Bitcoin Safe?
The safety of Bitcoin also has some variables. Like all cryptocurrencies, there is no physical note or document. Owners must safely keep their digital currency and access codes because if lost or misused, there may be no recourse. An elaborate security system surrounds Bitcoin. The digital currency exists in a blockchain that cannot be altered by any government or central authority. Every Bitcoin transaction is transparent and watched by a global network. Unlike some other types of transactions, once the Bitcoin moves, there is no reversal mechanism. When you sell or buy, the transfer cannot be undone or canceled. Bitcoin is the oldest of the major currencies that include Ethereum, Lite, and Ripple. Bitcoin, by far, has the highest value, and many investors prefer Bitcoin for investment potential. Bitcoin is among the small group of cryptocurrencies that bring high levels of interest from mainstream financial companies and banks. Relative to other cryptocurrencies, Bitcoin enjoys a high level of interest. It is the most well-known cryptocurrency.
People can buy cryptocurrencies in many ways. The blockchain ledgers keep track of Bitcoin’s existence and ownership, and owners can transfer it on a peer-to-peer basis. Peer to peer transactions does not require any action by a government, bank, or any central authority. A safer and more widely used method is to perform transactions on Bitcoin exchanges. [Koinal works with Binance]1 and other leading currency exchanges. Koinal provides a simple and effective way to purchase Bitcoin using regular bank credit cards and debit cards.
Taxes and Virtual Currency
Bitcoin transactions can result in taxation when used to pay for goods, services, and wages. While it is not a recognized form of currency under U.S. tax law, it does have value. In some instances, the tax code assesses Bitcoin by its fair market value at the time of purchase. The U.S. government’s Internal Revenue Service has noticed Bitcoin and digital currency. It issued an advisory in 2014 and a new item on the tax return for 2020. The IRS named Bitcoin as one of many virtual currencies. The IRS advises that Bitcoin may represent income under tax laws and maybe a taxable asset when held as property. When treated as property under a national tax code, Bitcoin may get treated like other assets that grow in value, such as the U.S. capital gains tax. Investors, buyers, and sellers should consult legal and tax advisors for advice on their situations. At Koinal, we do not offer tax advice. We simply point out that each investor must examine the tax implications of Bitcoin or other virtual currency transactions.
Keeping Within the Law and Regulations
Koinal takes all required steps to keep its transactions within the bounds of national laws and regulations. Koinal requires identification and personal information needed to comply with anti-corruption and know-your-customer rules(KYC). Bitcoin transactions are not anonymous under current rules and regulations. Koinal offers a seamless purchasing experiencing for Bitcoin that can use a bank credit card or debit card. Our system provides quick and reliable delivery to the coordinates of your choice. Bitcoin offers exciting potential for usage as a currency, medium of exchange, and as an investment. When you are ready to purchase, visit our Koinal.io website to buy bitcoin instantly with your credit card. ''' Is Bitcoin Safe and Legal? Go1dfish undelete link unreddit undelete link Author: koinalio 1: **w**o*nal.io/blog*bin*nce-to-j*in-e*fo*ts*with-koin*** Unknown links are censored to prevent spreading illicit content.
Ahead of Migration to Symbol, Simplex Offers Fiat On-Ramp to Buy XEM
Simplex provides fiat on-ramp infrastructure to several cryptocurrency exchanges, brokers and wallets.
https://preview.redd.it/f8ca2dvnr0w51.png?width=880&format=png&auto=webp&s=cae72bd32b8cb53084c549a3ca63b7c5f0254dce XEM, NEM’s native token on the original NEM blockchain (NIS1), can now be purchased using credit and debit cards thanks to a new partnership with crypto payment gateway, Simplex. Simplex provides fiat on-ramp infrastructure for several cryptocurrency exchanges, brokers, and wallets. The agreement will allow XEM holders to conduct and settle crypto transactions, a grey area of business where a gauntlet of KYC requirements and other regulations kick in. NEM’s userbase will benefit from Simplex’s fiat credit and debit purchase options and the support will prepare XEM holders for the upcoming launch of Symbol from NEM, its new enterprise-grade blockchain solution. “This partnership will provide an easy global on-ramp to XEM, enabling access to Simplex’s extensive network of exchanges globally. By providing users with greater flexibility in purchasing, Simplex will broaden the reach of XEM,” the company said. Simplex often charges 3.5 percent of a transaction, with a $10 minimum purchase amount. Moreover, the company applies various restrictions, including a $20,000 maximum for daily transactions when using a credit or debit card, as well as a $50,000 maximum monthly limit. Israeli-based Simplex combines crypto payment processing with fraud prevention technology and also provides a KYC opt-out feature for purchases less than USD $150. This amount is calculated for the entire lifetime of the user. Further, the startup enables merchants to accept diverse payment methods, including credit card deposits and purchases, with zero exposure to chargeback risk. Simplex has already signed partnerships with leading crypto exchanges, including Binance and Huobi, among others, to enable users to buy cryptocurrencies with their credit cards. Most recently, it has added support for Bitcoin SV, the cryptocurrency spearheaded by the self-proclaimed creator of Bitcoin, Craig Wright. Speaking on today’s announcement, Nicholas Pelecanos, head of trading at NEM said: “We’re excited to make XEM more globally accessible through Simplex’s vast network of partners and exchanges. Simplex’s user experience is unparalleled, and we’re thrilled to work with this industry behemoth to extend NEM’s global reach. This will enable anyone, anywhere, to have a foray into NEM and the digital assets space, democratizing access and propelling the industry forward to the next phase of adoption.” Source
Australia to become first crypto-friendly IPO by accepting Tether
An Aussie organization working a hydroponics ranch in Malaysia is directing the principal first sale of stock to acknowledge crypto resources in Australia. https://preview.redd.it/b9esxf8nx7x51.jpg?width=700&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=f5fa096179a32647bd3f7e685c7d697e3428689a Australia's crypto-accommodating capital-raising stage Stax has declared its customer West Coast Aquaculture Group, or WCA will direct the nation's first sale of stock that acknowledges virtual cash as installment. Speculators taking an interest in WCA's contribution can buy value in the organization utilizing Tether (USDT) or Australian dollars. USDT was picked over Bitcoin (BTC) and Ether (ETH) because of its value dependability. Stax CEO Kenny Lee underlined that stablecoins offer the advantages of cryptographic money without the instability of other computerized resources:
“The acceptance of USDT in an IPO is a transformative move in Australia and a significant step forward for cryptocurrency adoption in general. It paves the way for the future of capital markets down under.”
Lee noted Stax is thinking about help for extra stablecoins in the future. WCA works a huge marine ranch in Langkawi, Malaysia, where it essentially creates new Grouper fish for discount and retail clients in Singapore, Hong Kong, and Malaysia. The capital raised will be utilized for asset extensions including the acquisition of a new incubation centre and nursery offices. WCA is offering between 10 million and 14 million offers at $0.50 each, speaking to somewhere in the range of 8.78% and 11.87% of the complete access. The base objective is $5 million. After the raise, WCA's arrangements for its offers to drift on the Sydney Stock Exchange, with the offers expected to start exchanging close to Nov. 19 SSX CEO Michael Go commended Stax for encouraging a capital raise supporting USDT, expressing:
“This is a first, and historic development in the Australian market which will dictate the future of capital raising, particularly for growth companies.”
Tether To Replace Ethereum As The Second Largest Market Capitalization. According to Bloomberg analysts, the Tether (USDT) stablecoin may take the second place in the rating of the largest digital currencies in 2021. Thus, Tether will displace Ether (ETH) at this position. At the moment, the capitalization of ETH and Tether is about $42.066 billion and $15.737 billion, respectively. Recently, stablecoin knocked the XRP token from the third place in the ranking of the most popular cryptocurrencies. DeFi Token Maker Sets New TVL All-Time High As Crypto Market Takes Pause. Maker, one of the first tokens, continues to grow, setting new all-highs in total locked away value, which indicates the core stability of the DeFi markets. Bitcoin SV Will Sponsor The Cambridge University Metanet Society. Bitcoin Association, a Swiss-based organization, working to advance business with the Bitcoin SV blockchain, has announced its intention to sponsor the Cambridge University Metanet Society for the second year in a row. The company hopes that this will help nurture a new generation of Digital Finance professionals and bring together the brightest minds in developing new projects.
Projects And Updates
Ethereum Foundation Introduces New Smart Contract Language ‘Fe’ For The Ecosystem. The Ethereum ecosystem has introduced a new language for writing smart contracts named Fe, which was announced by the software engineer of the Ethereum Foundation Christoph Burgdorf. Today, most applications on Ethereum are written in the Solidity language. The company believes that having additional programming options will have a positive impact on the development of the ecosystem. Gate.io Unveils Hardware Crypto Wallet With Fingerprint Authorization. Gate.io Exchange announces a new hardware Wallet S1 with fingerprint recognition technology. Using biometrics will both better protect the user's keys and make it easier to work with them. Initially, for the China market, it will be available in other countries in the following months. Ethereum 2.0 Gets Closer: Zinken Testnet Successfully Launched. The developers of Ethereum started up the final test network Zinken before moving to the actual launching main ETH 2.0 network. According to Danny Ryan, lead coordinator for Etherium 2.0, the test genesis process went successfully. The previous "dress rehearsal" in the Spadina testnet failed primarily due to incorrect support for the latest version of the Prysm client. Nervos Integrates With HedgeTrade To Enable Community Trading Predictions. HedgeTrade’s community-driven predictions platform now supports CKB, the native token of an open-source public blockchain project Nervos. The collaboration will provide Nervos with unique analytical tools and will allow HedgeTrade to attract a new audience. Binance Announces Adding Support For MetaMask Wallet On Its Panama Bridge Service. Binance's Panama Bridge Service, designed to organize compatibility with other blockchains, added support for MetaMask, Ethereum browser wallet. Solana Announces Ethereum Cross-Chain Bridge ‘Wormhole’. The Solana smart contract platform has announced the upcoming launch of a bridge for Ethereum ERC-20 tokens called Wormhole. The bridge will allow users to transfer funds between blockchains, directly converting ERC-20 tokens to the corresponding SPL Solana standard.
New Zealand Man Charged With Money Laundering Via Crypto And Luxury Cars. A 40-year-old man from Auckland, New Zealand, is accused of money laundering through the purchase of cryptocurrencies and expensive cars, reports NZHerald. The man, whose identity is not disclosed, faces 30 charges. It is alleged that he received New Zealand dollars (NZD) to buy cryptocurrencies "as part of transactions that involve money laundering".
Coinbase CCO, Jeff Horowitz Is About To Exit The Crypto Exchange. CCO of Coinbase exchange, Jeff Horowitz, is leaving his post. The exact reasons weren't revealed, but Horowitz's colleagues pointed out that his retirement from Coinbase is not related to the recent statement of the exchange's CEO, Brian Armstrong. According to the new mission of Coinbase, the workers can't make political and social discussions if they are not related to the cryptocurrency industry. About 5% of employees who disagree with the new company policy chose to leave their workplace and receive compensation. Jack Dorsey’s Square Inc Invests $50 Million In Bitcoin. Jack Dorsey's Square payment company announced the purchase of $50 million worth of Bitcoins. Having made such a massive investment, Dorcey continues to place big bets on the digital currency, which he says will become commonly used over the next decade. That’s all for now! For more details follow us on Twitter, subscribe to our YouTube channel, join our Telegram.
How DAO users can truly control their voting rights
https://blockchaintopbuzz.medium.com/how-dao-users-can-truly-control-their-voting-rights-f945c9c6b65e Aelf proposed a solution that gives the control of the voting rights back to users by classifying token permissions. As of today, there are still few complete businesses. In addition to mining and building trading platforms, it is difficult to create a complete business model. Moreover, various trading platforms have gradually grown into enterprises with comprehensive products in the blockchain industry, including wallets, nodes, lending, mining pools, etc. At the same time, cloud services can reduce the cost of building small exchanges, but they can also lead to big trading platforms monopolizing data. For example, some Internet companies provide free cloud services in order to collect more valuable data. Currently, Ethereum, which has the richest DeFi ecosystem, is gradually upgrading to V2.0, and its consensus protocol will also be upgraded to PoS. Governance voting can be regarded as the most important feature in the PoS ecosystem. This year, Yearn.Finance rose to sudden prominence. But due to the governance problem, its community members initiated a hard fork, resulting in YFII. Another DeFi project, YAM, had a unfixable rebase function error. The founding team apologized for the error and announced a ‘Migration Plan’, which will turn the project over to the community. For a while, governance voting became all the rage. However, the increasingly bigger trading platforms have been criticized by users in governance voting. Is there a proper solution to handling the relationship between the trading platform and governance voting?
What will we lose when trading platforms monopolize the blockchain industry?
In June 2018, during the BP node election before the EOS mainnet launch, node voting began to have a crisis of confidence between token holders and the trading platform. it is widely believed that the top 20 holders of trading platform wallets held about 40% of all the EOS in circulation. Since then, many trading platforms have enabled the “User Authorization” interface. EOS holders can authorize the token voting rights to the trading platform, who will vote on behalf of the users. The rule caused a backlash from users, forcing these trading platforms to change the rule immediately so that EOS holders could vote on their preferred BP nodes. After the EOS BP node votes, whether the trading platform has the token voting right has been occasionally discussed, but fewhave noticed it. Two years later, Justin Sun, founder of TRON, made a commercial acquisition of Steemit, a decentralized social networking platform. After the acquisition was announced, the Steemit community launched a soft fork to resist the project being controlled by TRON. However, Justin Sun voted with the support of trading platforms such as Binance, Huobi and Poloniex to prevent a soft fork. After being questioned by users, Binance and Huobi said that they would no longer interfere in the voting of the Steemit community. However, hkdev 404 of the Steem community again reveived votes from Huobi accounts. It is said that nearly 40 million votes were cast during the incident, accounting for about 10% of the total circulation of STEEM tokens. There is no doubt that when the trading platform monopolizes the industry, we will lose our voting right. How do we defend our voting rights The fact that the ownership of the tokens belongs to the holders is indisputable, but what about the voting rights of the tokens deposited on the trading platform? How can we defend our voting rights after trading platforms have monopolized the industry?
Trading Platform Model
Traditional centralized trading platforms will assign to each user a separate deposit address. After depositing, the depositedamount will be added into the cold wallet and hot wallet. When users want to withdraw their tokens, the trading platform will transfer the tokens out of the hot wallet. If there is insufficient balance in the hot wallet, then the tokens will be transferred from the cold wallet to the hot wallet, and then be withdrawn. Under the traditional centralized trading platform model, once users transfer their tokens into a trading platform, it means thetoken ownership (including voting rights) is also transferred to that trading platform. The aelf solution: classify token permissions and claim back voting rights For the issue of “voting rights” between token holders and centralized trading platforms, aelf, a decentralized cloud computing blockchain network, has proposed a solution: to establish an aelf Centre Asset Management Contract on the chain. The contract can limit the funds entering the exchange and define different permissions to control the assets. The main feature of the aelf Centre Asset Management Contract is to create the “Main Virtual Address of the Trading Platform”. Each exchange has a main virtual address, which can only be used for transfer operation, but not for voting, trading and other operations. As a result, the exchange cannot misappropriate users’ assets for voting. At the same time, the assets of the primary virtual address are publicly available on the chain, which makes it more difficult for the exchange to misappropriate assets. At the same time, the aelf Centre Asset Management Contract also has the function of “address definition”. The exchange can open different permissions to different addresses, such as opening different permissions according to the amount, transactions exceeding a certain amount can only be given the greenlight by using multiple signatures, and the assets can be frozen through the contract when the assets of the trading platform are stolen, etc. For the users of the trading platform, the access of the trading platform to the aelf Center Asset Management Contract function will not undermine user experience. The virtual system address of the aelf Center Asset Management Contract will assign a virtual address to each user, which offers the same user experience as the traditional mode. For the trading platform, each deposit address constructed by the virtual address system is generated by the algorithm and does not need to be carried out on the blockchain. This means that the trading platform does not need to manage a large number of private keys, and there is no risk that the private keys will be lost. On the most important “voting rights” issue, the aelf Center Asset Management Contract will assign to each user a separate virtual address for voting: Voting address = Hash (Exchange Main Address + Token + “VOTE”) Voting process: the tokens are transferred from the main virtual address of the exchange to the special “voting address” for voting, and are then voted. After voting, the tokens are withdrawn from the voting address back to the main virtual address. We can see that the aelf Centre Asset Management Contract proposed by aelf can improve the efficiency of the trading platform without affecting user experience. In addition, it solves the problem that users would lose their voting rights. According to the data on Crypto Mode, the market value of PoS tokens has exceeded $33 billion without counting Ethereum. In the field of crypto, it is the biggest ecosystem next to Bitcoin. The most important function of PoS is vote staking. faced with bigtrading platforms, if the status quo continues, retail investors will gradually lose their “voting rights” that belong to them. Comparison of Market Value of PoS tokens (Source: Crypto Mode) The emergence of DAO offers an alternative to trading platforms who misappropriate users’ tokens, but it still can not change this situation. Of course, DAO will not die out. Small communities will still use DAO for community governance. The idea behind the design of aelf is to start from the underlying trading platform and solve this issue at the source. Whether the solution can work still takes time. However, as a member of the crypto industry, we should understand the importance of “voting rights”, and cannot allow the exchange to seize our rights at will. Recently, aelf has also announced its DeFi plan, which includes a new blockchain 3.0 project with a large number of new technical features, such as cross chain function, virtual address and cloud services. Aelf also proposed a set of interoperability solutions with ERC-20 tokens. It can directly access the ETH ecosystem, allow ETH-based applications and wallets to directly access it, and maintain the interoperability with ETH. And aelf will provide a high-performance smart contract operation platform and cloud services that can support cross chain interaction. Users on major cloud servers can easily run aelf’s services and adjust the scale of cloud according to their own business needs. The implementation of a slew of tools, cloud services and interoperability solutions developed by aelf means that centralized transactions can be directly connected to the aelf network, realizing one-click adaptation to the DeFi ecosystem. With aelf, CeFi and DeFi are able to learn from and complement each other.
Aryacoin is a new cryptocurrency, which allows for decentralized, peer to peer transactions of electronic cash. It is like Bitcoin and Litecoin, but the trading of the coin occurs on sales platforms that have no restriction to use. Further, it was created with the goal of addressing the double spend issues of Bitcoin and does so using a timestamp server to verify transactions. It works by taking the hash of a block of items to be timestamped and widely publishing the hash. The timestamp proves that the data must have existed at the time in order to get the hash. Each timestamp then includes the previous timestamp in its hash, forming a chain. The Aryacoin team is continuously developing new use cases for the coin, including exchanges where users can exchange the coins without any fees or restrictions, and offline options where the coins can be bought and sold for cash. The coins can also be used on the company’s other platform, mrdigicoin.io. Along with the coin, there is a digital wallet that can be created and controlled by the user entirely, with no control being retained by the Aryacoin team.
The concept of Blockchain first came to fame in October 2008, as part of a proposal for Bitcoin, with the aim to create P2P money without banks. Bitcoin introduced a novel solution to the age-old human problem of trust. The underlying blockchain technology allows us to trust the outputs of the system without trusting any actor within it. People and institutions who do not know or trust each other, reside in different countries, are subject to different jurisdictions, and who have no legally binding agreements with each other, can now interact over the Internet without the need for trusted third parties like banks, Internet platforms, or other types of clearing institutions. When bitcoin was launched it was revolutionary allowing people to transfer money to anytime and anywhere with very low transaction fees . It was decentralized and their is no third party involved in the transaction , only the sender and receiver were involved. This paper provide a solution to the double-spending problem using a peer-to-peer distributed timestamp server to generate computational proof of the chronological order of transactions.The system is secure as long as honest nodes collectively control more CPU power than any cooperating group of attacker nodes. Bitcoin was made so that it would not be controlled or regulated but now exchanges and governments are regulating bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies at every step. Aryacoin was developed to overcome these restrictions on a free currency. Aryacoin is a new age cryptocurrency, which withholds the original principle on which the concept of cryptocurrency was established. Combining the best in blockchain technology since the time of its creation, Aryacoin strives to deliver the highest trading and mining standards for its community.
1.1 OVERVIEW ABOUT ARYACOIN
Aryacoin is a new age cryptocurrency, which withholds the original principle on which the concept of cryptocurrency was established. Combining the best in blockchain technology since the time of its creation, Aryacoin strives to deliver the highest trading and mining standards for its community. Aryacoin is a blockchain based project that allows users to access their wallet on the web and mobile browsers, using their login details. Aryacoin can be mined; it also can be exchanged by other digital currencies in several world-famous exchanges such as Hitbtc, CoinEx, P2pb2b, WhiteBit, Changelly and is also listed in reputable wallets such as Coinomi and Guarda. Aryacoin is a coin, which can be used by anyone looking to use cryptocurrency which allows them to keep their privacy even when buying/selling the coin along with while using the coin during transactions. Proof of work and cryptographic hashes allows transactions to verified. Stable Fee Per AYA is a unique feature of Aryacoin, so by increasing the amount or volume of the transaction, there is no change in the fee within the network, which means that the fee for sending an amount less than 1 AYA is equal to several hundred million AYA. Another unique feature of Aryacoin is the undetectability of transactions in Explorer, such as the DASH and Monero, of course, this operation is unique to Aryacoin. Using Aryacoin digital currency, like other currencies, international transactions can be done very quickly and there are no limitations in this area as the creators claim. Aryacoin aims to allow users to access the Aryacoin wallet via the web and mobile browsers using their login details. Aryacoin is a peer-to-peer electronic cash system that enables users to send and receive payments directly from one party to another, and allow them to transfer funds across borders with no restriction or third party involvement. The blockchain-based system embraces the digital signature, which prevents double spending and low transfer fees, which enables users to transfer huge amounts with very low fees. The proof-of-work consensus mechanism allows each transaction to be verified and confirmed, while anonymity enables users to use the coin anywhere at any time. According to the website of the operation, each wallet is divided into 2 or more AYA wallet addresses for each transaction, and depending on the volume of the transaction block, the origin, and destination of transactions in the network can not be traced and displayed to the public. In fact, each wallet in Aryacoin consists of a total of several wallets. The number of these wallets increases per transaction to increase both security and privacy. Aryacoin also uses the dPoW protocol. In the dPoW protocol, a second layer is added to the network to verify transactions, which makes “51% attack” impossible even with more than half of the network hash, and blocks whose Blockchain uses this second layer of security never run the risk of 51% attacks. AYA has been listed on a number of crypto exchanges, unlike other main cryptocurrencies, it cannot be directly purchased with fiats money. However, You can still easily buy this coin by first buying Bitcoin from any large exchanges and then transfer to the exchange that offers to trade this coin.
1.1.1 ARYACOIN HISTORY
Aryacoin (AYA) is a new cryptocurrency, which has been created by a group of Iranian developers, is an altcoin which allows for decentralised, peer to peer transactions of electronic cash without any fees whatsoever. Along with the coin, there is a digital wallet that can be created and managed by the user entirely, with no control being retained by the Aryacoin team. Aryacoin’s founder, Kiumars Parsa, has been a fan of alternative currencies and particularly Bitcoin. “We see people from all around the world using Blockchain technology and the great benefits that came with it and it then that I decided to solve this puzzle for find a way of bringing the last missing piece to the jigsaw. The idea for Aryacoin was born.” Parsa said. Parsa and his team of Iranian ex-pats not only persevered but expedited the project and just a year later, in the summer of 2019, the first version of Aryacoin was released. In 2020, Aryacoin is the first and only Iranian coin listed on CMC. Parsa goes on to state that it is now the strength of the community that has invested in the coin that will ultimately drive its success, alongside its robust technology and appealing 0% network fees. “We have thousands of voices behind Aryacoin. People for the people make this coin. It is a massive shout out for democracy. This had made us base the whole team strategy on the benefits for both our users and our traders.” “One key example is that the network fee on AYA Blockchain is 0%. Yes, absolutely nothing, which which differentiates us from other networks. What also differentiates us from other coins is that we have AYAPAY which is the first cryptocurrency Gateway in the world which does not save funds on third party storage with all funds being forwarded directly to any wallet address that the Gateway owner requests”. “So for the first time ever, and unlike other gateways, incoming funds will be saved on the users account with submitted withdrawal requests then made on the Gateway host website. In AYAPAY which has also been developed by the Aryacoin team, all funds without extra fees or extra costs will directly forwarded to users wallets. We have named this technology as CloudWithdrawal.” “We are continuously challenging ourselves as it is a crowded marketplace. We are striving to have a safer Blockchain against 51% attacks, faster confirmations speeds of transactions, cheaper network fee, growing the market by cooperation with Top tier Exchangers.”
1.1.2 ARYACOIN’S MAIN GOAL
Aryacoin’s main goal is to educate people and give them the freedom to use cryptocurrency in any way they want. Aryacoin empowers the users to transfer, pay, trade cryptocurrency from any country around the globe. Platforms that have been created by Aryacoin Team, as well as those that will go live in future, operate on the same principle and exclude absolutely no one.
1.1.3 PROBLEM ARYACOIN SEEKS TO SOLVE
Aryacoin aims to provide a long-term solution to the problem of double spending, which is still common in the crypto market. The developers of the system have created a peer-to-peer distributed timestamp server that generates computational proof of the transactions as they occur. Besides, the system remains secure provided honest nodes control more CPU power than any cooperating group of attacker nodes. While Bitcoin was designed not to be regulated or controlled, many exchanges and governments have put regulatory measures on the pioneer cryptocurrency at every step. Aryacoin aims to overcome these restrictions as a free digital currency.
1.1.4 BENEFITS OF USING ARYACOIN
Aryacoin solution offers the following benefits:
Real-time update: whether you’re going on a holiday or a business trip, no problem. You can access your coins all over the world.
Instant operations: Aryacoin makes it quite easy for you to use your digital wallet and perform various operations with it.
Safe and secure: all your data is stored encrypted and can only be decrypted with your private key, seed, or password.
Strong security: The system has no control over your wallet. You are 100% in charge of your wallet and funds.
1.1.5 ARYACOIN FEATURES
1. Anonymity The coin provides decent level of anonymity for all its users. The users can send their transactions to any of the public nodes to be broadcasted , the transaction sent to the nodes should be signed by the private key of the sender address . This allows the users to use the coin anywhere any time , sending transactions directly to the node allows users from any place and country . 2. Real Life Usage aryacoin’s team is continuously developing new and innovative ways to use the coins , they are currently developing exchanges where the users can exchange the coins without any fees and any restrictions . They also are currently developing other innovative technologies, which would allow users to spend our coins everywhere and anywhere. 3. Offline Exchanges They are also working with different offline vendors which would enable them to buy and sell the coins directly to our users on a fixed/variable price this would allow easy buy/sell directly using cash . This would allow the coins to be accessible to users without any restrictions which most of the online exchanges have, also increase the value and number of users along with new ways to spend the coin. This would increase anonymity level of the coin. In addition, introduce new users into the cryptomarket and technology. Creating a revolution, which educates people about crypto and introduce them to the crypto world, which introduces a completely new group of people into crypto and a move towards a Decentralized future! 4. Transactions When it comes to transactions, Aryacoin embraces a chain of digital signatures, where each owner simply transfers the coin to the next person by digitally signing a hash of the previous transaction and the public key of the next owner. The recipient can then verify the signatures to confirm the chain of ownership. Importantly, Aryacoin comes with a trusted central authority that checks every transaction for double spending. 5. Business Partner with Simplex Aryacoin is the first and only Iranian digital currency that managed to obtain a trading license in other countries. In collaboration with the foundation and financial giant Simplex, a major cryptocurrency company that has large companies such as Binance, P2P, Changelly, etc. Aryacoin has been licensed to enter the world’s major exchanges, as well as the possibility of purchasing AYA through Credit Cards, which will begin in the second half of 2020. Also, the possibility of purchasing Aryacoin through Visa and MasterCard credit cards will be activated simultaneously inside the Aryacoin site. plus, in less than a year, AYA will be placed next to big names such as CoinCapMarket, Coinomi, P2P, Coinpayments and many other world-class brands today.
1.1.6 WHY CHOOSE ARYACOIN?
If you want to use a cryptocurrency that allows you to keep your privacy online even when buying and selling the coins, the Aryacoin team claims that AYA is the way to go. Aryacoin is putting in the work: with more ways to buy and sell, and fixing the issues that were present in the original Bitcoin, plus pushing the boundaries with innovative solutions in cryptocurrencies. You can get started using Aryacoin (AYA) payments simply by having a CoinPayments account!
1.1.7 ARYANA CENTRALIZED EXCHANGE
Aryana, the first Iranian exchange is a unique platform with the following features:
The first real international Persian exchange that obtains international licenses and is listed in CoinMarketCap.
The first Iranian exchange that has been cooperating with a legal and European exchange for 3 years.
The possibility of trading in Tomans (available currency in Iran) at the user’s desired price and getting rid of the transaction prices imposed by domestic sites inside Iran.
There is an internal fee payment plan by Iranian domestic banks for depositing and withdrawing Tomans for Aryacoin holders in Aryana Exchange.
The number that you see on the monitor and in your account will be equal to the number that is transferred to your bank account without a difference of one Rial.
The last but not least, noting the fact that there is a trading in Tomans possibility in Aryana exchange.
Aryana Exchange is using the most powerful, fastest, and most expensive server in the world, Google Cloud Platform (GCP), which is currently the highest quality server for an Iranian site, so that professional traders do not lag behind the market even for a second. The feature of Smart Trading Robots is one of the most powerful features for digital currency traders. Digital cryptocurrency traders are well aware of how much they will benefit from smart trading robots. In the Aryana exchange, it is possible to connect exchange user accounts to intelligent trading bots and trade even when they are offline. The injection of $ 1 million a day in liquidity by the WhiteBite exchange to maintain and support the price of Tether and eliminate the Tether fluctuations with Bitcoin instabilities used by profiteers to become a matter of course.
1.1.8 HOW DOES ARYACOIN WORK?
Aryacoin (AYA) tries to ensure a high level of security and privacy. The team has made sure to eliminate any trading restrictions for the network users: no verification is required to carry out transactions on AYA, making the project truly anonymous, decentralized, and giving it a real use in day-to-day life. The Delayed-Proof-of-Work (dPoW) algorithm makes the Aryacoin blockchain immune to any attempts of a 51% attack. AYA defines a coin as a chain of digital signatures — each owner transfers the coin to the next owner by digitally signing the hash of the previous transaction and the public key of the next owner, and the receiver verifies the signatures and the chain of ownership.
2. ARYACOIN TECHNOLOGY
They use a proof-of-work system similar to Adam Back’s Hashcash to implement a distributed timestamp server on a peer-to-peer basis, rather than newspaper or Usenet publications. The proof-of-work involves scanning for a value that when hashed, such as with SHA-256, the hash begins with a number of zero bits. The average work required is exponential in the number of zero bits required and can be verified by executing a single hash. For their timestamp network, they implement the proof-of-work by incrementing a nonce in the block until a value is found that gives the block’s hash the required zero bits. Once the CPU effort has been expended to make it satisfy the proof-of-work, the block cannot be changed without redoing the work. As later blocks are chained after it, the work to change the block would include redoing all the blocks after it. The proof-of-work also solves the problem of determining representation in majority decision making. If the majority were based on one-IP-address-one-vote, it could be subverted by anyone able to allocate many IPs. Proof-of-work is essentially one-CPU-one-vote. The majority decision is represented by the longest chain, which has the greatest proof-of-work effort invested in it. If honest nodes control a majority of CPU power, the honest chain will grow the fastest and outpace any competing chains. To modify a past block, an attacker would have to redo the proof-of-work of the block and all blocks after it, then catch up with, and surpass the work of the honest nodes.
The steps to run the network are as follows:
New transactions are broadcast to all nodes.
Each node collects new transactions into a block.
Each node works on finding a difficult proof-of-work for its block.
When a node finds a proof-of-work, it broadcasts the block to all nodes.
Nodes accept the block only if all transactions in it are valid and not already spent.
This is a very simple system that makes the network fast and scalable, while also providing a decent level of anonymity for all users. Users can send their transactions to any of the public nodes to be broadcast, and the private key of the sender’s address should sign any transaction sent to the nodes. This way, all transaction info remains strictly confidential. It also allows users to send transactions directly to the node from any place at any time and allows the transferring of huge amounts with very low fees.
2.3 AYAPAY PAYMENT SERVICES GATEWAY:
According to creators Aryacoin, the development team has succeeded in inventing a new blockchain technology for the first time in the world, which is undoubtedly a big step and great news for all digital currency enthusiasts around the world. This new technology has been implemented on the Aryacoin AYAPAY platform and was unveiled on October 2. AYAPAY payment platform is the only payment gateway in the world that does not save money in users’ accounts and transfers incoming coins directly to any wallet address requested by the gateway owner without any additional transaction or fee. In other similar systems or even systems such as PayPal, money is stored in the user account.
2.4 CONSENSUS ALGORITHM IN ARYACOIN
The devs introduced the Delayed-Proof-of-Work (dPoW) algorithm, which represents a hybrid consensus method that allows one blockchain to take advantage of the security provided by the hashing power of another blockchain. The AYA blockchain works on dPoW and can use such consensus methods as Proof-of-Work (PoW) or Proof-of-Stake (PoS) and join to any desired PoW blockchain. The main purpose of this is to allow the blockchain to continue operating without notary nodes on the basis of its original consensus method. In this situation, additional security will no longer be provided through the attached blockchain, but this is not a particularly significant problem. dPoW can improve the security level and reduce energy consumption for any blockchain.
2.5 DOUBLE-SPEND PROBLEM AND SOLUTION
One of the main problems in the blockchain world is that a receiver is unable to verify whether or not one of the senders did not double-spend. Aryacoin provides the solution, and has established a trusted central authority, or mint, that checks every transaction for double-spending. Only the mint can issue a new coin and all the coins issued directly from the mint are trusted and cannot be double-spent. However, such a system cannot therefore be fully decentralized because it depends on the company running the mint, similar to a bank. Aryacoin implements a scheme where the receiver knows that the previous owners did not sign any earlier transactions. The mint is aware of all transactions including which of them arrived first. The developers used an interesting solution called the Timestamp Server, which works by taking a hash of a block of items to be ‘timestamped’ and publishing the hash. Each timestamp includes the previous timestamp in its hash, forming a chain. To modify a block, an attacker would have to redo the proof-of-work of all previous blocks, then catch up with, and surpass the work of the honest nodes. This is almost impossible, and makes the network processes more secure. The proof-of-work difficulty varies according to circumstances. Such an approach ensures reliability and high throughput.
3. ARYACOIN ROADMAP
April 2019: The launch of Aryacoin; AYA ICO, resulting in over 30BTC collected December 2019: The launch of AYA Pay April 2020: The successful Hamedan Hardfork, supported by all AYA exchanges, aimed at integrating the dPoW algorithm, improving the security of the AYA blockchain. June 2020: Aryana Exchange goes live, opening more trading opportunities globally July 2020: The enabling of our Coin Exchanger November 2020: The implementation of Smart Contracts into the Aryacoin Ecosystem Q1 2021: Alef B goes live (more details coming soon)
Aryacoin (AYA) is a new age cryptocurrency that combines the best of the blockchain technology and strives to deliver high trading and mining standards, enabling users to make peer-to-peer decentralized transactions of electronic cash. Aryacoin is part of an ecosystem that includes payment gateway Ayapay and the Ayabank. AYA has a partnership with the Microsoft Azure cloud platform, which provides the ability to develop applications and store data on servers located in distributed data centers. The network fee for the AYA Blockchain is 0%. In Ayapay service, which has been developed by the Aryacoin team, all funds without extra fees or costs are directly forwarded to users’ wallets with technology called CloudWithdrawal. The devs team is introducing new use cases including exchanges where users will exchange AYA without any restrictions. You can buy AYA on an exchange of your choice, create an Aryacoin wallet, and store it in Guarda.
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